All historical disruptions are, as we know, disastrous for archives, libraries and museums. Th e decade of 1939–1949 meant the accumulation of three types of catastrophy in the case of Poland: war, shifting state borders, and changes in regime. For the vast majority of Polish library collections, we know that they were to a greater or lesser extent victims of that time, but it is difficult to describe it specifically in the absence of detailed information regarding pre-war ownership. This is not the case, however, with incunabules. An initiative begun by Kazimierz Piekarski in the 30s of the last century to record all incunables held in the Second Republic, with the aim of publishing a central catalogue in 1939, managed to cover the vast majority of Polish collections of this type. An abbreviated copy of the inventory, saved during the Warsaw Uprising by Alodia Kawecka-Gryczowa, became the starting point for the resumption of the same publishing initiative after the war, resulting in the publication of two volumes of Incunabula quae in bibliothecis Poloniae asservantur in 1970, and thereafter in the development of a full inventory of losses from the war in terms of incunabules. Th is study can be regarded as a pars pro toto for assessing the losses of other types of library collections. As co-author of this part of the publication, I carried out detailed research for many years – at times resembling detective work – to determine the fate of collections as well as of individual copies. Th e text presented here is a summary of this research and findings. In addition to discussing specific losses in all Polish libraries that occurred during the aforementioned decade, at the end of the text are arguments for the transfer of the identified objects to their rightful owners.
The Municipal Library in Lubań (which before 1945 went under the name Stadt-und Volksbuecherei Lauban) was established in 1569 thanks to the efforts of one man – a local pastor named Sigismund Schwabe – and was one of the four oldest minicipal libraries in the lands of the present Poland. As was the case with most of the libraries in the former German lands, after 1945 its collections were dispersed. A large portion, including all the incunables that we know of today from this source, went to the National Library and to the Wrocław University Library. Since the Gesamtkatalog der Wiegendrucke did not register this collection prior to 1945, there is no way of determining whether this library has suffered losses in terms of the fifteenth-century prints. Currently, 69 incunabules are known to be from this source, of which 48 reside in the National Library and 21 at the Wrocław University Library. A careful examination of the entire group, especially in terms of provenance, has allowed us to develop interesting conclusions regarding the origins of the library in Lubań. The article concludes with a catalog of incunabules preserved from Lubań along with indexes.
A fragment of a parchment leaf, inscribed on both sides with Carolingian minuscule script in two columns, was found inside of a latrine (dated to the 14th-15th century) during excavations conducted by the Gdańsk Archaeological Museum on the site of Klesza Street in Gdańsk in January 2009. It was possible to establish that the discovered parchment contains fragments of the Fourth Book of Ezra: on the recto 4 Ezd. 6.17-32 and 7.7-12, and on the verso 4 Ezd. 7.47-53 and 7.77-89. An in-depth analysis of the preserved fragment and a comparison to the text of currently known codices containing the Fourth Book of Ezdra have indicated that the codex whose fragment was found in Gdańsk must have belonged to the so-called “Spanish” branch of the stemma codicum and that it should be dated to ca. the 11th century.
This text does not pretend to be an extensive study of calendars in Gdansk, but rather raises one particular issue. This regards the scheme of the graphic composition of the title; one of the most important and identifiable parts of an almanac and proves that this calendariography belongs with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The source material of this text is based on the collected calendars issued by the printing houses of Gdansk. As with other calendars
published in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, they can be divided into the following types of title composition: composition of text and perspective without border; composition of text with typographic border; composition with pictorial border or enclaved text; composition involving pictorial plaques, vignettes, or ornaments with or without encircling typographical borders; and composition of pictorial plaques, vignettes or ornaments with pictorial borders.
Thus, the Gdansk calendars should be considered as forming a part with the prints of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
In 1612, at the behest of Marie de Medici, a three-day Carousel was held in one of the squares in Paris. Th is type of public spectacle, organized to celebrate important court ceremonies such as weddings and coronations, or to call attention to significant political events, were very popular throughout most of early modern Europe. Th ese quasi-theatrical shows, which included ceremonial entries of representatives from powerful families, allegorical group parades with elaborately decorated wagons and intricate machines, artistic performances, tournament matches, and finally, fi reworks and illuminations, were primarily used to emphasize the majesty of the ruler. Th is text is an attempt to present one of the most interesting European Carousels as an example of the masterful use of the form as propaganda of power. The Parisian Carousel was organized to bring splendour to a double betrothal of minors: Louis XIII with Anne of Austria, the Infanta of Spain, and a younger daughter of Marie de Medici, Elizabeth, with Philip, the heir to the throne of Spain. Th is celebration, which for the first time in France took place not in the Louvre but in the urban space outside, was designed to dazzle the gathered crowd. At the same time the complex textual and allegorical program created by the most prominent authors of the court allowed a multi-level reading of the Carousel. Thus it became a paean to peace, prosperity and the monarchy. Thanks to the project’s impetus, as well as to the accompanying reports, handbills and various printed images, Marie de Medici managed to strengthen the Franco-Spanish alliance: At the time of the Carousel’s organisation, the double wedding was only planned, and in fact was not possible for several years due to the ages of the intended spouses, however at this international arena it appeared as an accomplished fact.
This paper deals with the reading strategies applied by Jan Brożek (Joannes Broscius, 1585–1652) to the writings of Petrus Ramus. Over the five decades of his academic career, this Kraków-based polymath gathered an enormous number of volumes which are currently preserved at the Jagiellonian Library in Kraków, Poland. Among them, one can find a dozen or so Ramist prints, a majority of which have been annotated by Broscius. Although Broscius was a professor of mathematics, his interest in Ramism covered not only Ramus' writings in arithmetic and geometry, but also his works on dialectic, rhetoric and even theology. Through an analysis of Broscius' marginalia, I reconstruct his research apparatus which, along with his other manuscripts and annotated volumes, formed the basis for his anti-Ramist Apologia pro Aristotele et Euclide of 1652.
During the work on catalogue of medieval manuscripts from the collection of University Library in Toruń there were found book bindings of particular historical and artistic value. In the article there was made a profile of four of the most precious book bindings from 14th to first half of 16th century. The first of those bindings is a work from Köln. It was made in two stages (probably after 1363 and between 1375 and 1385). Gothic medallions with heraldic motif of eagle and lion are its decoration. Th is work bears a strong formal resemblance to Master of Golden Bull book bindings, and specially to Master of Oaths-Book bindings. The second binding as regards technique of making is an unusual thing: it was coloured in red, and afterwards there was cut out an ornament on it, and the background had still natural (bright) colour of the leather. Probably it was made in Silesia or in Lausitz in first half of 14th century. The third book binding belongs to very rare category of bookbinding’s works: it was decorated in the woodcut technique on the facings’ leather. The decoration presents floral motifs and scene of hunting with a bird and a leopard. It was probably made in Gdańsk’s workshop in 4th decade of 15th century. Next book binding was made in Czech Kingdom or in Ducal Prussia in first half of 14th century. It has got a characteristic painted decoration: multicoloured rhombuses and triangles. The last of those book bindings is the work of Netherlandish bookbinder Jacobus Clercx de Ghele from the time before 1543. Two plaquets embossed on the facings proves that; one is dominated by floral ornaments and the second presents plant’s flagellum, animals and the inscription with master’s signature.
The subject of the article is a parchment gradual from 1464 stored in the National Library in the Zamoyski Library collection. It has not so far been the subject of a separate study, although it is an important document for the beginnings of the liturgical-musical tradition of the Franciscan Observantists (known in Poland as Bernardines) in Central Europe. This article aims at a study of the characteristics of the musical and liturgical content of the book in the context of representative Bernardine graduals, as well as of the circumstances of its creation and its functioning prior to its acquisition and incorporation into the collections which occurred, as has been determined, at the time of Thomas Francis Zamoyski. Confronting the contents of the colophon and the note of provenance from 1515 with major events concerning the emancipation of the Observantists from the Franciscan’s authority, one can argue that the history of the artifact is tied to two monasteries: Głubczyce and Bytom. Th e manuscript was written down when the monasteries were organized, perhaps a short time after they were established, under the Comissioner for the Polish Kingdom. Th is moment coincided with milestones in the life of John the Pious, probably the patron of the gradual. Probably before the year 1517, when there was a complete separation of the Franciscans into two separate orders, the book was moved to the convent of the Franciscan Observantists in Bytom, designated as a place for the recovery of books. This center, which in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries kept contact with Bernardines from Little Poland, and which after 1605 was settled by the Conventual Franciscans and attached to a Polish Franciscan province, seems to have played a crucial role in keeping the gradual in the sphere of Polish influence. This influence finds confirmation in the chants that were added, but also in the core layer of the codex, which was drawn up possibly in the scriptorium of the Bernardines of Krakow. The gradual is characteristic of the Franciscan Observantists’ Ista rubrica, which sets it on the level of manuscript models, essentially identical with the oldest Franciscan graduals in the content and forms of the Mass, on the other hand, there is a certain freedom in the selection and development of melody in the alleluia verses for the Bernardine holidays, later introduced to the calendar, and more modest than the graduals in the Bernardine repertoire of ordinarium Missae and sequences.
The Załuski Library was established in Warsaw by the Załuski brothers – Andrzej Stanisław and Józef Andrzej – both of whom were bishops. Opened to the public in 1747, it was the first Polish public library. After the death of its founders the Commission of National Education took charge of the library. It was one of Europe’s finest libraries, with a collection of about 400,000 old prints, 40,000 engravings and 20,000 manuscripts. In 1795, in the aftermath of the third Partition of Poland, on the order of the Russian Empress Catherine II, the entire collection was moved to St. Petersburg and a year later it formed the core of the newly founded Imperial Library. In the years 1806–1807 the manuscripts from the Załuski Library were given descriptions and included in an inventory by Peter Dubrovsky, the head of the Manuscript Department of the Imperial Library. 40 years later they were described for the second time. The manuscripts were given call numbers, which are still in use. In the years 1923–1934 almost the entire manuscripts collection was returned to Poland. Most of these manuscripts were burnt by German troops in Warsaw in October 1944. Currently, the employees of the National Library of Poland, together with the employees of the Manuscripts Department of the National Library of Russia, have been carrying out research and preparing an edition of the Dubrovsky Inventory. This group is also trying to locate the manuscripts from the Załuski collections in both libraries in order to describe them and publish their inventory.
Repression, used after 1830 by the government of the Russian Empire against the participants of the November Uprising and insurgent organizations operating in the region in the years that followed, also included the confiscation of Polish estates, including libraries. Part of the confiscated manuscripts and prints went to the Imperial Public Library. This article explains what criteria and rules were used for the admission of confiscated collections and presents the history of specific collections and individual books.
It is necessary to distinguish three sources which enabled the rebuilding of the Library of the Seminary in Płock after 1945. Firstly, books were obtained from the so-called Sandomierz Duplicates, that is from dissolved monasteries, especially in the area of Małopolska, and from the dissolved monasteries in the Diocese of Plock; the second source is purchases from antiquarian booksellers; and finally, the third source is testamentary bequests from the clergy of Płock. Most books were purchased in antique shops in Bydgoszcz and Kielce, as indicated by companys’ inscriptions on labels. Among the books purchased, 53 titles in 57 volumes date from the sixteenth century; 53 titles in 51 volumes from the seventeenth century; and 57 titles from the eighteenth century. The works come from well-known European publishing houses: Antwerp, Cologne, Basel, Venice, Rome, Strasbourg, as well as Warsaw, Cracow, Lublin, Vilna, Kalisz and Lviv. In turn, included among books from bequests are those willed by Fr. Francis Xavier Kuligowski (1870–1963), Fr. Wenceslas Jezuska (1896–1982), Fr. Louis Ostaszewski (1906–1985), Fr. Anastasius Rutkowski (1908–1995) and Fr. Xavier Ziemieckiego (1912–2002). Books emanating in this manner from antiquarian booksellers and from the testamentary bequests of Płock clergy were an important part of the historical reconstruction of the Płock library in the postwar years. The collection is not a thematic monolith, but rather the result of the interests of their previous owners.
This collection contains 15 titles in 10 volumes, which were once owned by Simon Starowolski, writer, bibliographer, polyhistorian and cantor of the collegiate church of Tarnów in the years 1642–1654. He most likely offered his books to the Tarnów collegiate library around 1654. That the books belonged to his collection is shown by the recorded notes of ownership: Simon Starowolski Cantor Tarnoviesis Eccl[esi]ae Collegiatae Tarnovien[si] ofert. mpp. The works are related to the following areas of knowledge: history, preaching, law, biblical studies and above all liturgy. All are printed in Latin and the vast majority come from foreign publishing houses in contemporary Europe: Paris, Antwerp, Basel, and above all the Italian publishing houses of Venice, Rome and Verona. Among the surviving books, just one was published in Cracow by Officina Lazari. All the books possess a straightforward, but rather characteristic seventeenth-century binding, which was made of reinforced cardboard coated with exposed light-yellow parchment bindings. Th e condition of the bindings, like that of the books, is quite varied. The books show signs of moisture, which probably results from their being stored in different locations over the past four centuries. It is worth noting that the collection, first stored in the Tarnów chapter library, was transferred in the nineteenth century to the newly created Seminary library.
The document issued by the Polish Librarians Association and the NUKAT Center, MARC 21 format for bibliographic data – visual materials by Krystyna Sanetra, Beata Górecka and Anna Graff, is a good starting point for reflection and clarification of typological terminology. The publication in fact discusses both iconographic documents in traditional form and in electronic form. An analysis of the vocabulary used so far seems to indicate the need for new conceptual models of cataloguing. The process of modernizing cataloguing rules made in connection with the introduction of the integrated library catalogue descriptions of different types of publications, is often interrelated with complex relationships (copy, modification, adaptation, version, variation). Revised norms and standards have been published in Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records, Resource Descriprion and Acess, International Cataloguing Principles (revised 2009), ISBD Consolidated Edition (2011 version). They create a new conceptual apparatus adequate to the diversity of types of documents which contain more and more complex content, often atypical forms of preservation, and modern media. Applied to the Polish language, the term iconographic document causes problems not only for readers. Librarians also find it difficult to determine whether digital photography is an iconographic document or an electronic one. The modernization of international cataloguing principles is therefore an excellent opportunity to start a discussion on the native terminology in this field. It will be necessary to decide whether, as recommended by the FRBR, the word ‘document’ should be excluded and the best Polish equivalent of the ressource term should be sought for the category of library materials.
This paper focuses on comparing RDA and ISBD standards in terms of defining the core elements of bibliographic description as defined in the FRBR conceptual model. Elements of the Work and Expression core level are described, e.g. Title of the Work, Identifier of the Work, Creator of the Work, Content Type, and Language of Expression. Also included are some examples of these elements recorded in MARC format. The results of the survey show that both of the standards comply with the FRBR’s entities, however ISBD, as a standard of bibliographic prescriptions, implements these on a less theoretical level than in the FRBR model.